Puzzling deadlocks with "on duplicate key update"

Hi all,
I’m using mysql Ver 8.0.18, with InnoDb.
I have ‘rankings’ table with the following structure:

+-----------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

| Field     | Type         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+-----------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id        | bigint(20)   | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| namespace | varchar(255) | NO   | MUL | NULL    |                |
| bucket    | varchar(255) | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| item      | varchar(255) | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| score     | bigint(20)   | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
+-----------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+


with indexes on 

"namespace", "bucket", "score"
AND
"namespace", "item", "bucket" UNIQUE

There’s multiple processes writing into this table, each of them processing a specific namespace-bucket couple and performing a single query like:

INSERT INTO `rankings` (`namespace`,`bucket`,`item`,`score`) VALUES ('nms1','bucket1','item1',100),('nms1','bucket1','item2',200)... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE `rankings`.`score`=VALUES(`score`)

With this structure I get a lot of deadlocked transactions. By looking at the logs they look like:

------------------------
LATEST DETECTED DEADLOCK------------------------2020-05-22 11:52:32 0x7fb035cfd700*** (1) TRANSACTION:TRANSACTION 1836940429, ACTIVE 0 sec insertingmysql tables in use 1, locked 1LOCK WAIT 7 lock struct(s), heap size 1136, 4 row lock(s)MySQL thread id 78953000, OS thread handle 140372543633152, query id 1578279266 xxx.xxx.xxx.net x.x.x.x user updateINSERT INTO `rankings` (`namespace`,`bucket`,`item`,`score`) VALUES ('nmsp1','bucket1','item1',28854600),('nsmp1','bucket1','item2',213846600),... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE `rankings`.`score`=VALUES(`score`)

*** (1) HOLDS THE LOCK(S):RECORD LOCKS space id 74 page no 470039 n bits 216 index PRIMARY of table `db`.`rankings` trx id 1836940429 lock_mode XRecord lock, heap no 1 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 1; compact format; info bits 0 0: len 8; hex 73757072656d756d; asc supremum;;

*** (1) WAITING FOR THIS LOCK TO BE GRANTED:RECORD LOCKS space id 74 page no 470039 n bits 216 index PRIMARY of table `db`.`rankings` trx id 1836940429 lock_mode X insert intention waitingRecord lock, heap no 1 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 1; compact format; info bits 0 0: len 8; hex 73757072656d756d; asc supremum;;

*** (2) TRANSACTION:TRANSACTION 1836940430, ACTIVE 0 sec insertingmysql tables in use 1, locked 1LOCK WAIT 6 lock struct(s), heap size 1136, 4 row lock(s), undo log entries 1MySQL thread id 78953009, OS thread handle 140373338322688, query id 1578279267 x.x.x.net x0.x.0.x user updateINSERT INTO `rankings` (`namespace`,`bucket`,`item`,`score`) VALUES ('nmps2','bucket2','item3',4218),('nmsp2','bucket2','item4',17406) ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE `rankings`.`score`=VALUES(`score`)<br>*** (2) HOLDS THE LOCK(S):RECORD LOCKS space id 74 page no 470039 n bits 216 index PRIMARY of table `db`.`rankings` trx id 1836940430 lock_mode XRecord lock, heap no 1 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 1; compact format; info bits 0&nbsp;0: len 8; hex 73757072656d756d; asc supremum;;<br>*** (2) WAITING FOR THIS LOCK TO BE GRANTED:RECORD LOCKS space id 74 page no 470039 n bits 216 index PRIMARY of table `db`.`rankings` trx id 1836940430 lock_mode X insert intention waitingRecord lock, heap no 1 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 1; compact format; info bits 0&nbsp;0: len 8; hex 73757072656d756d; asc supremum;;<br>*** WE ROLL BACK TRANSACTION (2)

The first thing that puzzles me is that, from what I read, both transactions seem to be both holding and waiting on the same exclusive lock. How is that possible? How should I interpret this log?  
I have already tried sorting the inserted rows by score or item, as recommended in the documentation, but it had no effect.
Then I tried to change the isolation level to COMMITTED READS, and this fixes the problem, I guess because the exclusive lock on the row, in case of updates, is only taken on the record rather than on the gap (although I don’t understand the deep reason behind this deadlock)

But now I’m not sure if this could introduce some inconsistencies in the data.
From what I understand COMMITTED READS should only affect reads within the transaction. But what kind of reads are performed in a “insert … on duplicate key update” transaction?
Doesn’t look like those insert queries should be affected by any concurrent change of data, especially because, as I mentioned, processes work on different namespace-bucket couples.
Thanks for your help.

D.

1 Like

Hi Danielle,

One trx1 already holds a lock which trx2 is requesting, but trx2 holds a lock trx1 was requesting. Check the following example:

tx1:begin;INSERT INTO `rankings` (`namespace`,`bucket`,`item`,`score`) VALUES ('nms1','bucket1','item1',100) ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE `rankings`.`score`=VALUES(`score`);<br>tx2:begin;INSERT INTO `rankings` (`namespace`,`bucket`,`item`,`score`) VALUES ('nms2','bucket2','item2',200) ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE `rankings`.`score`=VALUES(`score`);INSERT INTO `rankings` (`namespace`,`bucket`,`item`,`score`) VALUES ('nms1','bucket1','item1',300) ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE `rankings`.`score`=VALUES(`score`);<br><br>tx1:INSERT INTO `rankings` (`namespace`,`bucket`,`item`,`score`) VALUES ('nms2','bucket2','item2',400) ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE `rankings`.`score`=VALUES(`score`);&nbsp;

Results in:

ERROR 1213 (40001): Deadlock found when trying to get lock; try restarting transaction


Checking error.log, I see that:
------------------------

2020-06-09 19:23:46 0x7f279eafa700*** (1) TRANSACTION:TRANSACTION 1815, ACTIVE 4 sec insertingmysql tables in use 1, locked 1LOCK WAIT 3 lock struct(s), heap size 1136, 2 row lock(s), undo log entries 2

and

*** (2) TRANSACTION:TRANSACTION 1814, ACTIVE 11 sec insertingmysql tables in use 1, locked 1LOCK WAIT 3 lock struct(s), heap size 1136, 2 row lock(s), undo log entries 2


In your deadlock, more rows and tables were involved (a more complex transaction?):

TRANSACTION:TRANSACTION 1836940429, ACTIVE 0 sec insertingmysql tables in use 1, locked 1LOCK WAIT 7 lock struct(s), heap size 1136, 4 row lock(s)MySQL thread id 78953000

and

*** (2) TRANSACTION:TRANSACTION 1836940430, ACTIVE 0 sec insertingmysql tables in use 1, locked 1LOCK WAIT 6 lock struct(s), heap size 1136, 4 row lock(s), 


Which means that more statements than in my example were executed and doing gap lock compared to my example. Btw, my example cannot be fixed by using isolation level “READ COMMITED” while yours do, and an educated guess is that you are generating some values to be inserted from previous reads which is solved by changing isolation level.

> Then I tried to change the isolation level to COMMITTED READS, and this fixes the problem, I guess because the exclusive lock on the row, in case of updates, is only taken on the record rather than on the gap (although I don’t understand the deep reason behind this deadlock)

> But now I’m not sure if this could introduce some inconsistencies in the data.

In order to fully understand what happened (and since there are more statements apart from the “INSERT ON UPDATE”), you should check the entire transactions that conflict in a deadlock.
You can log deadlocks using https://www.percona.com/doc/percona-toolkit/3.0/pt-deadlock-logger.html , and then you can review which statements were executed by enabling Performance schema event history table: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/events-statements-history-table.html . You can then then identify the queries which were involved in the transaction using queries similar to the one described here: https://www.psce.com/en/blog/2015/01/22/tracking-mysql-query-history-in-long-running-transactions/

> From what I understand COMMITTED READS should only affect reads within the transaction. But what kind of reads are performed in a “insert … on duplicate key update” transaction?
> Doesn’t look like those insert queries should be affected by any concurrent change of data, especially because, as I mentioned, processes work on different namespace-bucket couples.

Yes, REPEATABL READ and READ COMMITED should only affect reads inside the transaction. You can check handlers by executing "show  status like ‘%handler%’; after executing both INSERT ON DUPLICATE KEY vs only INSERT and it should show same number of rows being read, but since the issue is fixed by changing isolation level, then the difference on locking must be because of previous statements inside the transactions (which as previously mentioned, your transaction shows more structures and rows locked).If you use above query to find out which other statements are being executed at the same time, it will provide more information in understanding what is happening.

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Hi

I am having a slow insert issue with - insert into (bulk inserts) ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE = value in MySQL 5.7 after upgrading from 5.6. There was no issue with 5.6 and getting deadlock also. Then I disabled the innodb_deadlock_detect parameter so please suggest to me how to handle this issue ?

1 Like