I have used XtraBackup to back up remote servers to a local server. In fact I use this method a lot when I want to create a slave in a different geographic location. First I would suggest reading the XtraBackup Manual so you understand the differences between mysqldump and XtraBackup as they are very different.
If you determine you can use XtraBackup in your situation then I can share what I have done in the past in hopes that you can use part of it in your situation.
In this example lets says we have two locations or data centers (DC1 and DC2) and that you have a MySQL server (A) at DC1 that you want to back up to DC2.
Because you want to back up a remote server to a local server, I will assume you may be connected over a VPN (which I have used this method for) or other network link.
I suggest using pigz for compression over gzip as pigz can use multiple processors. So if possible, install pigz on A at DC1 ( google pigz )
We are also going to make use of the “stream” option in XtraBackup and netcat (nc)
Please read the XtraBackup documentation to make sure you select the correct options for your situation.
At DC1 on A I run:
innobackupex --user=username --password=password --stream=tar ./ | pigz | nc -l 1234
At DC2 on the server I want to receive the back up at I run in the directory I want to store the back up:
nc 1234 | gunzip | tar ixvf - 2> xtrabackup.log
Note, this will store your entire MySQL data directory uncompressed at DC2 on your back up server. This is useful for creating a slave at DC2 and there are great directions on this in teh Xtrabackup Manual.
I have done this with 600 GB databases in 2-3 hours over a VPN and much quicker on a 1GB network ( where A server had 16 cores).
You could also just send the file like:
innobackupex --user=username --password=password --stream=tar ./ | pigz | ssh user@dc2_server “cat - > /backupdirectory/mysql_backup.tar.gz”
There are other great options you may need such as --slave-info and --safe-slave-backup and if the locking at the end of the back up is an issue you can use the --no-lock option and then use pt-table-checksum and pt-table-sync after you create your slave to bring it in line with your master. This is a bit more advanced, and while I have done it several times, I used Percona Support to do it! ( worth the investment trust me!)